In this paper, we present the results, which have been obtained for more than ten years on different archaeological sites of the late Lower Pleistocene or the early Middle Pleistocene, which are crucial for the understanding of the first human settlements of Europe: Pont-de-Lavaud and Grâce-Autoroute (France), Atapuerca Gran Dolina (Spain), Monte Poggiolo and Isernia La Pineta (Italy).Wherever possible, the ESR results were compared with those of independent dating methods, including 39Ar/40Ar, palaeomagnetism and biostratigraphy.BC3 is likely to be ~7080 kyr old, and BC5, 5065 kyr old.
Overview of Methods Superposition Stratigraphy Dendrochronology Radiocarbon C14 Radiometric Dating Methods Obsidian Hydration Dating Paleomagnetic/Archaeomagnetic Luminescence Dating Methods Amino Acid Racemization Fission-track Dating Ice Cores Varves Pollens Corals Cation Ratio Fluorine Dating Patination Oxidizable Carbon Ratio Electron Spin Resonance Cosmic-ray Exposure Dating This is an excellent overview of dating methodologies, and is a chapter in a textbook on Archaeology.
(ed.): Encyclopedia of Coastal Science: 467 – 472; Dordrecht (Springer). – Journal of Coastal Research, 20, 20: 947-957; West Palm Beach (Florida). (2003): Electron Spin Resonance and Radiocarbon dating of coral deposited by Holocene tsunami events on Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba (Netherlands Antilles).
(2004): Comparison of ESR and TIMS U/Th dating of marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, 5c, and 5a coral from Barbados - implications for palaeo sea-level changes in the Caribbean. Schellmann, G., Radtke, U., Scheffers, A., Whelan, F. (2004): ESR dating of coral reef terraces on Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles) with estimates of Younger Pleistocene sea level elevations.
A few examples of such lies are presented at the very bottom of this page.
For each dating or chronological method there is a link in the box at right to take you to that section of this page.